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President Trump Is Standing Up To China’s Unfair Trading Practices

- March 22, 2018

President Trump Has Carried Out His Campaign Promise To Confront China And Fight For American Workers


TOP TAKEAWAYS

  • In response to China's repeated theft and abuse of U.S. intellectual property, President Trump announced the U.S. will impose new tariffs against China.
  • Today's announcement follows an investigation into China's unfair trade practices which the Trump Administration launched last August.
  • This is another campaign promise kept by President Trump, who said on the campaign trail he would use the President's Section 301 powers to combat China's illegal activities, including the theft of American trade secrets.
  • China is the world's principal sponsor of intellectual property theft, which costs the U.S. economy as much as $600 billion annually.
  • Among China's more egregious misuses and theft of U.S. intellectual property:
    • Chinese actors associated with the military are alleged to have broken into the computer systems of U.S. companies and stolen proprietary information for commercial gain.
    • U.S. companies across various sectors have suffered from Chinese applicants illegally registering their trademarks in bad faith to profit off of U.S. companies' global reputation.
  • China has for years engaged in a variety of unfair and unethical trading practices that have hurt the U.S. economy and its workers.
    • China has blocked U.S. telecommunications, credit card, and film companies from operating in the country.
    • China has sponsored the subsidization and dumping of cheap steel and aluminum which have weakened internal U.S. producers and impaired U.S. national security.
    • China has used faulty science and other bad faith tactics to block the importation of U.S. beef products, poultry, and corn despite China's World Trade Organization market access obligations.

FOLLOWING THROUGH ON A CAMPAIGN PROMISE, PRESIDENT TRUMP TOOK STEPS TO CURB CHINA'S THEFT AND ABUSE OF U.S. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

Today, President Trump Imposed New Tariffs Against China

Today, The Trump Administration Is Imposing New Tariffs Against China. "President Trump plans to unveil his aggressive package of tariffs against China tomorrow, with a charge led by U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer that will use Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 to target Beijing. Two sources with direct knowledge tell me Kevin Hassett has been crunching the numbers, and the dollar value of the tariffs will likely be around $50 billion per year - or slightly less. The administration has used an algorithm to select a batch of Chinese products and then apply tariff rates to those products in a way that will hopefully limit the harm to American consumers." (Jonathan Swan, "Scoop: Trump To Announe Anti-China Tariffs Tomorrow," Axios , 3/21/18)

China Has Been "Doing Its Utmost To Promote Exports -- And To Block Trading Partners, Particularly Major Industrial Powers Like The U.S., From Getting Much Of A Foothold In Its Fast-Growing Domestic Markets." "China became the world's second-largest economy ($11.4 trillion), behind the U.S. ($18.5 trillion), mostly by doing its utmost to promote exports -- and to block trading partners, particularly major industrial powers like the U.S., from getting much of a foothold in its fast-growing domestic markets." (Larry Light, "Is China The Unfair Trade Villain Trump Says It Is?," CBS , 4/6/17)

Last August, President Trump Ordered An Investigation Into The Chinese Government's Role In The Unfair Transfer Of U.S. Intellectual Property

Today's Tariffs Are The Result Of The Section 301 Investigation Into Unfair Chinese Intellectual Property Trade Practices. "The tariffs are the result of an investigation under Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 into China forcing US companies to move intellectual property, like moving patents to China, to do business there. Trump's new tariffs would be a punishment to try to stem this practice." (Bob Bryan, "Trump Could Deal China A Trade Blow That's Twice the Size Of His Top Aides' Original Plan, Business Insider , 03/20/18)

  • Section 301 Of The Trade Act Of 1974 Allows The United States To Impose Trade Sanctions On Foreign Countries That Violate Trade Agreements Or Engage In Other Unfair Trade Practices. "Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 provides the United States with the authority to enforce trade agreements, resolve trade disputes, and open foreign markets to U.S. goods and services. It is the principal statutory authority under which the United States may impose trade sanctions on foreign countries that either violate trade agreements or engage in other unfair trade practices. When negotiations to remove the offending trade practice fail, the United States may take action to raise import duties on the foreign country's products as a means to rebalance lost concessions." ("Section 301," International Trade Administration , Accessed 03/22/18)

In Mid-August 2017, President Trump Ordered An Investigation Into The Chinese Government's Role In The Unfair Transfer Of U.S. Intellectual Property To Private Chinese Companies. "In mid-August, the U.S. launched a section 301 investigation into China's public support for its private companies through the unfair transfer of IP. A positive finding in this investigation could result in the unilateral imposition of tariffs and quotas on Chinese goods in a broad array of industries. Administration officials, such as Pete Navarro and Wilbur Ross, have been advocating for such protectionist measures. Moreover, the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) Robert Lighthizer has publicly stated his support for ignoring WTO dispute resolution mechanisms in favor of unilateral tools." (Edward Barss, "Trump's Intellectual Property Push And The Hope For Chinese Reform," The Diplomat , 11/12/17)

On March 21, 2018, The White House Announced President Trump Would Be Taking Action Based On The USTR's 301 Investigation Into Chinese Intellectual Property Theft. "The White House plans to announce a package of tariffs Thursday penalizing China for intellectual property theft. 'Tomorrow the President will announce the actions he has decided to take based on USTR's 301 investigation into China's state-led, market-distorting efforts to force, pressure, and steal U.S. technologies and intellectual property,' principal deputy press secretary Raj Shah said in a statement Wednesday." (Kayla Tausche, and Jacob Pramuk, "White House Will Announce Tariffs Cracking Down On Chinese Theft Of Intellectual Property," CNBC , 03/21/18)

Today's Actions Make Good On A Campaign Promise To Stand Up For American Workers And Curtail Unfair Chinese Trading Practices

On The Campaign Trail, Republican Presidential Candidate Donald Trump Promised To Protect American Workers And Stand Up To "Trade Cheating "Anywhere And Everywhere It Threatens An American Job." DONALD TRUMP: "Under a Trump Presidency, the American worker will finally have a President who will protect them and fight for them. We will stand up to trade cheating anywhere and everywhere it threatens an American job." (Donald Trump, Remarks At A Campaign Event , Monessen, PA, 06/28/16)

Trump Promised To Stand Up To China's Illegal Activities Through Section 301 Tariffs. TRUMP: "If China does not stop its illegal activities, including its theft of American trade secrets, I will use every lawful presidential power to remedy trade disputes, including the application of tariffs consistent with Section 201 and 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 and Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962." (Donald Trump, Remarks At A Campaign Event , Monessen, PA, 06/28/16)

TODAY'S STEPS ARE A RESPONSE TO CHINA'S WIDESPREAD THEFT AND ABUSE OF U.S. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

China Has Been Named The World's Principal Culprit Of Intellectual Property Theft, And Has Been Accused Of Breaking Into U.S. Companies

According To The Commission On The Theft Of American Intellectual Property, China Is The World's Principal IP Infringer, And Is "Deeply Committed" To Industrial Policies, Such As The "Acquisition Of Foreign Technology And Information" That Contribute To "Greater IP Theft." "China, whose industrial output now exceeds that of the United States, remains the world's principal IP infringer. China is deeply committed to industrial policies that include maximizing the acquisition of foreign technology and information, policies that have contributed to greater IP theft." ("Update To The IP Commission Report On The Theft Of American Intellectual Property," The Commission On The Theft Of American Intellectual Property , February 2017, pg. 1)

  • The Commission On The Theft Of American Intellectual Property Is "An Independent And Bipartisan Initiative Of Americans From The Private Sector, Public Service In National Security and Foreign Affairs, Academe, And Politics. " "The Commission on the Theft of American Intellectual Property is an independent and bipartisan initiative of leading Americans from the private sector, public service in national security and foreign affairs, academe, and politics. ("About The Commission," The IP Commission , Accessed 03/22/18)
  • Admiral Dennis C. Blair, Chairman Of The IP Commission, Is The Former Commander In Chief Of The U.S. Pacific Command And Former U.S. Director Of National Intelligence For President Barack Obama. "Dennis C. Blair is the Chairman of the board and Distinguished Senior Fellow at the Sasakawa Peace Foundation USA and the Co-Chair of the Commission on the Theft of American Intellectual Property. He is the former commander in chief of the U.S. Pacific Command and the former U.S. director of national intelligence. Prior to rejoining the government in 2009, Admiral Blair held the John M. Shalikashvili Chair in National Security Studies with the National Bureau of Asian Research and served as deputy director of the Project for National Security Reform." ("Dennis C. Blair," The IP Commission , Accessed 03/22/18)

"IP Theft By Thousands Of Chinese Actors Continues To Be Rampant ." "IP theft by thousands of Chinese actors continues to be rampant, and the United States constantly buys its own and other states' inventions from Chinese infringers." ("Update To The IP Commission Report On The Theft Of American Intellectual Property," The Commission On The Theft Of American Intellectual Property , February 2017, Pg. 1)

The Commission Has Called IP Theft A "Grave Threat To The U.S." And Has Estimated The Annual Cost To The U.S. Economy From Counterfeit Goods, Pirated Software, And The Theft Of Trade Secrets To Be As High As $600 Billion. "While some indicators show that the problem may have improved marginally, the theft of IP remains a grave threat to the United States. Since 2013, at the release of the IP Commission Report, U.S. policy mechanisms have been markedly enhanced but gone largely unused. We estimate that the annual cost to the U.S. economy continues to exceed $225 billion in counterfeit goods, pirated software, and theft of trade secrets and could be as high as $600 billion." ("Update To The IP Commission Report On The Theft Of American Intellectual Property," The Commission On The Theft Of American Intellectual Property , February 2017, Pg. 1)

"When Foreign Companies Seek To Link Up With Chinese Partners, The Government Often Requires Them To Hand Over Intellectual Property." (Larry Light, "Is China The Unfair Trade Villain Trump Says It Is?," CBS , 4/6/17)

Actors Affiliated With The Chinese Government And Military Have Infiltrated The Computer Systems Of U.S. Companies And Stole Their Intellectual Property. "Most troubling are reports that actors affiliated with the Chinese government and the Chinese military have infiltrated the computer systems of U.S. companies, stealing terabytes of data, including the companies' intellectual property (IP), for the purpose of providing commercial advantages to Chinese enterprises." ("2017 National Trade Estimate Report On Foreign Trade Barriers," Office Of The United States Trade Representative , March 2017, Pg. 78)

In March 2017, The U.S. Trade Representative Called The Protection And Enforcement of Trade Secrets In China "A Serious Problem" And Noted That The Theft Of Trade Secrets For The Benefit Of Chinese Companies Has Occurred Within China And Outside China. "The protection and enforcement of trade secrets in China is a serious problem and has been the subject of high-profile attention and engagement in recent years. Thefts of trade secrets for the benefit of Chinese companies have occurred both within China and outside of China." ("2017 National Trade Estimate Report On Foreign Trade Barriers," Office Of The United States Trade Representative , Pg. 78 March 2017)

Chinese Applicants Have Registered U.S. Trademarks In Bad Faith And "Held Them For Ransom" Or Used The Trademarks To Profit Off Of U.S. Companies' Global Reputation

The United States Trade Representative (USTR) Reported That U.S. Companies Across Several Sectors Have Been Confronted By Chinese Applicants Registering Their Trademarks And "Holding Them For Ransom" Or Working To Build Businesses Off U.S. Companies' Global Reputation. "U.S. companies across industry sectors continue to face Chinese applicants registering their marks and 'holding them for ransom' or seeking to establish a business building off of U.S. companies' global reputations." ("2017 National Trade Estimate Report On Foreign Trade Barriers," Office Of The United States Trade Representative , March 2017, Pg. 78)

Thefts Of Trade Secrets For The Benefit Of Chinese Companies Have Occurred Both Inside And Outside China With "Impunity." "Thefts of trade secrets for the benefit of Chinese companies have occurred both within China and outside of China. Offenders in many cases continue to operate with impunity." ("2017 National Trade Estimate Report On Foreign Trade Barriers," Office Of The United States Trade Representative , March 2017, Pg. 78)

In May 2016, Chinese Sports Company Uncle Martian, Bearing An "Uncanny Resemblance" To The Baltimore Sports Company Under Armor Was The Latest In A Line Of Chinese Companies Seeking To Capitalize On The Fame Of Foreign Counterparts. "A Chinese sports apparel company is dismissing allegations that its logo bears an uncanny resemblance to the one used by Baltimore-based Under Armour. Uncle Martian, as the brand is mystifyingly known, appears to be the latest in a long line of Chinese companies seeking to capitalize on the fame of their better-known foreign counterparts. Its logo, a letter 'U' on top of an upside-down 'U,' became the subject of widespread ridicule among Chinese Internet users last week and has drawn threats of a lawsuit from Under Armour." (Feleicia Sonmez, and Yang Jie, "China's Uncle Martian Says It Has "Nothing To Do With' Under Armor," The Wall Street Journal , 05/03/16)

China Has Raised Barriers To The Free Flow Of Data Which Threaten To Hurt Over $400 Billion Dollars Of U.S. Annual Exports

In A March 2017 Report, USTR Found That U.S. Companies Are Being Harmed By Countries Blocking Or Restricting The Flow Of Digital Data And Services. "Other countries have looked to harm U.S. companies by blocking or unreasonably restricting the flow of digital data and services, or through theft of trade secrets ("The President's 2017 Trade Policy Agenda," The Office Of The United States Trade Representative , pg. 4, March 2017"

Bloomberg Has Reported That China Has Excluded Thousands Of U.S. Websites Domestically, Including Eight Of The Twenty-Five Most Trafficked Global Sites. "Last year, China excluded thousands of U.S. websites from China, including eight of the 25 most-trafficked global sites. Yet, so far at least, there's been hardly a word of protest out of Washington against these systematic denials of market access." (Adam Minter, "The Great Firewall Is A Trade Barrier," Bloomberg , 03/26/17)

This Protectionism Has Allowed For Domestic Companies To Flourish In The Absence Of Foreign Competition. "The Chinese government is doubtless aware of the opportunities that online protectionism creates for domestic companies. In June 2009, China blocked Twitter; two months later, Sina Corp. launched a wildly successful knock-off microblog, Weibo, that has thrived for years in the absence of foreign competition. Likewise, when Google announced in May 2010 that it was contemplating the total shutdown of its Chinese offices, the stock of Baidu Inc. -- its leading Chinese competitor and a keen observer and imitator of Google's business -- rallied 16.6 percent in a single day, while smaller rivals enjoyed similar bumps." (Adam Minter, "The Great Firewall Is A Trade Barrier," Bloomberg , 03/26/17)

The Washington Post Reported That Barriers To The Free Flow Of Data Erected By China And Others Threaten $400 Billion Of Annual U.S. Exports. "China, Russia, the European Union and other nations are erecting barriers to the free flow of data that companies increasingly sell as a product or use as a tool. Those obstacles threaten roughly $400 billion of annual U.S. exports and the bottom line of companies like IBM, Citibank, Federal Express and Visa." (David Lynch, "The U.S. Dominates The World Of Big Data. But Trump's NAFTA Demands Could Pat That At Risk," The Washington Post , 11/28/17)

BEYOND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY THEFT, CHINA HAS ENGAGED IN A VARIETY OF UNFAIR TRADING PRACTICES THAT HAVE HURT THE U.S. ECONOMY AND WORKERS

China Has Sponsored The Subsidization And Dumping Of Cheep Steel Which Has Hurt The U.S. Economy And Has Been Blamed For Thousands Of Layoffs

The Chinese Government Has Contributed To "Massive Excess Capacity" Of Steel And Aluminum And Has Hurt "U.S. Producers And Workers In Both The United States And Third Country Markets Such As Canada And Mexico Where U.S. Exports Compete With Chinese Exports." "In manufacturing industries like steel and aluminum in particular, China's economic planners and their government actions and financial support have contributed to massive excess capacity in China, with the resulting over-production distorting global markets and hurting U.S. producers and workers in both the United States and third country markets such as Canada and Mexico, where U.S. exports compete with Chinese exports. ("2017 Report To Congress On China's WTO Compliance," The Office Of The United States Trade Representative , January 2018, pg. 13)

Excess Capacity Of Steel And Aluminum In China Has Lowered Global Prices, And Made It Difficult For Even The "Most Competitive [U.S.] Producers To Remain Viable." "Excess capacity in China - whether in the steel industry or other industries like aluminum or soda ash - hurts U.S. industries and workers not only because of direct exports from China to the United States, but because lower global prices and a glut of supply make it difficult for even the most competitive producers to remain viable. ("2017 Report To Congress On China's WTO Compliance," The Office Of The United States Trade Representative , January 2018, pg. 13)

  • In 2016, The United Steelworkers Union Blamed Steel Imports For More Than 19,000 Layoffs Over The Previous Few Years. "The United Steelworkers union blames imports for more than 19,000 layoffs of steelworkers and iron ore miners over the last few years." (Joseph Pete, "Report Finds Chinese Steel Heavily Subsidized, NWI Times , 07/28/16)

In 2018, The Department Of Commerce Concluded Present Quantities Of Steel Imports Weakened The United States' Internal Economy And Threatened "To Impair The National Security" Of The Country. "Based on these findings, the Secretary of Commerce concludes that the present quantities and circumstance of steel imports are 'weakening our internal economy' and threaten to impair the national security as defined in Section 232.'" ("The Effect Of Imports Of Steel On National Security," U.S. Department Of Commerce , 01/11/18, pg. 5)

Amid Shrinking Domestic Metal Production, China Has Sponsored The Subsidization And Dumping Of Aluminum Which Has Impaired U.S. National Security

In January 2017, The Department Of Commerce Found That Imports Of Aluminum "Threaten To Impair The National Security" And Have Left The U.S. At Risk Of "Almost Totally Reliant On Foreign Producers." "Based on these findings, the Secretary of Commerce has concluded that the present quantities and circumstance of aluminum imports are 'weakening our internal economy' and threaten to impair the national security as defined in Section 232. The Department of Defense and critical domestic industries depend on large quantities of aluminum. But recent import trends have left the U.S. almost totally reliant on foreign producers of primary aluminum." ("The Effect Of Imports Of Aluminum On National Security," U.S. Department Of Commerce , pg. 5, 01/17/18)

  • The Commerce Department Noted That The U.S. Aluminum Industry "Is At Risk Of Becoming Unable To Satisfy Existing National Security Needs." "The U.S. is also at risk of becoming completely reliant on foreign producers of high-purity aluminum is at risk of becoming unable to satisfy existing national security needs or respond to a national security emergency that requires a large increase in domestic production that is essential for key military and commercial systems. The domestic aluminum industry." ("The Effect Of Imports Of Aluminum On National Security," U.S. Department Of Commerce , pg. 5, 01/17/18)

In February 2018, The U.S. Department Of Commerce Determined That Chinese Aluminum Foil Imports, In Particular, Were Being Sold At Less Than Their Value And Chinese Producers Were Benefiting From Government Subsidization. "The U.S. Commerce Department said on Tuesday it had made a final determination that imports of aluminum foil from China are being sold in the United States at less than their fair value and producers are benefiting from subsidies from Beijing." ("U.S. Finds China Aluminum Foil Imports Dumped, Subsidized," Reuters , 02/27/18)

As Of 2018, The Bureau Of Labor Statistics Reported Employment In The Primary Metals Industry Has Declined From 624,700 Jobs In January 2000 To 376,500 Jobs As Of January 2018. ("Coal Mining," Bureau Of Labor Statistics , Accessed 03/02/18)

In Violation Of The World Trade Organization (WTO) Accession Agreement, China Has Discriminatorily Blocked And Hindered U.S. Telecommunication, Credit Card, And Film Companies From Operating In The Country

China Has Implemented Discriminatory Regulatory Processes, Requirements, And Informal Bans To Block Or Hinder The Access Of U.S. Suppliers Across Several Different Sectors To The Chinese Market. "As in past years, Chinese regulators continued to use discriminatory regulatory processes, informal bans on entry and expansion, overly burdensome licensing and operating requirements, and other means to frustrate the efforts of U.S. suppliers of services, including banking services, insurance services, telecommunication services, Internet-related services (including cloud services), audiovisual services, express delivery services, legal services and other services to achieve their full market potential in China." ("2017 National Trade Estimate Report On Foreign Trade Barriers," Office Of The United States Trade Representative , March 2017, Pg. 86)

USTR Reported That "While China Declared An Intent To Further Liberalize A Number Of Service Sectors," "No Meaningful Concrete Steps Have Been Taken. "While China declared an intent to further liberalize a number of services sectors in its Third Plenum Decision, no meaningful concrete steps have been taken." ("2017 National Trade Estimate Report On Foreign Trade Barriers," Office Of The United States Trade Representative , March 2017, pg. 86)

China Has Placed "Unwarranted Restrictions" On Major U.S. Credit Card And Processing Companies. "China continued to place unwarranted restrictions on foreign companies, including the major U.S. credit card and processing companies, which supply electronic payment services to banks and other businesses that issue or accept credit and debit cards." ("2017 National Trade Estimate Report On Foreign Trade Barriers," Office Of The United States Trade Representative , March 2017, pg. 86)

China Has "Created Serious Barriers To Market Entry" For U.S. And Other Foreign Basic And Value Added Telecommunications Services. "Restrictions maintained by China on both basic and value-added telecommunication services have created serious barriers to market entry for foreign suppliers. Restrictions on basic telecommunication services have blocked foreign suppliers from accessing a sector in China that has witnessed explosive growth. China has informally banned on new entry - only a handful of Chinese and no foreign-invested suppliers have been licensed as basic suppliers since China's entry into the WTO, almost two decades ago." ("2017 National Trade Estimate Report On Foreign Trade Barriers," Office Of The United States Trade Representative , March 2017, pg. 86)

Since 2012, China Has Capped The Number Of Foreign Films That Can Be Shown In The Country Each Year, Ensuring Chinese Qualifying Films Account For 60% Of Box-Office Share. "As part of a bilateral trade agreement signed in 2012, China has maintained a cap on the number of foreign films that can be shown each year, to ensure that Chinese-qualifying films account for 60% of box-office share." (Gwilym Mumford, "China's Hollywood Film Quota To Expand After Trump Trade Deal," The Guardian , 04/12/17)

  • In February 2017, China Agreed To An Increase In Hollywood Imports, As Part Of Recent Trade Talks With The Trump Administration. "China is set to allow the release of more Hollywood films as part of a trade pact with the United States. The South China Morning Post reports that a higher number of movies from the US will be permitted to be shown on the mainland as a sign from Beijing that it is taking steps to cut its trade surplus with the US. China is also expected to increase its imports of American soy, pork and beef as part of the agreement, government researcher Mei Xinyu told the newspaper." (Gwilym Mumford, "China's Hollywood Film Quota To Expand After Trump Trade Deal," The Guardian , 04/12/17)

China Has Unfairly Blocked The Importation Of U.S. Beef And Corn Products

As Of 2017, China Was The "Least Transparent And Predictable" Of The World's Major Markets For Agricultural Products Due In Part To "Capricious Practices" And "Uneven Enforcement Of Regulations And Selective Intervention" By Chinese Authorities. "Notwithstanding this success, China remains among the least transparent and predictable of the world's major markets for agricultural products, largely because of uneven enforcement of regulations and selective intervention in the market by China's regulatory authorities. Seemingly capricious practices by Chinese customs and quarantine agencies delay or halt shipments of agricultural products into China. Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures with questionable scientific bases or a generally opaque regulatory regime frequently have created difficulties and uncertainty for traders in agricultural commodities, who require as much certainty and transparency as possible." ("2017 National Trade Estimate Report On Foreign Trade Barriers," Office Of The United States Trade Representative , March 2017, pg. 91)

Market Access For U.S. Food Exports Promised As A Result Of The WTO Accession Agreement Has Yet To Be Fully Realized. "With China moving forward with implementation of its 2015 Food Safety Law, new regulations - and new concerns such as burdensome and unnecessary requirements for official certification of low-risk food exports - are on the increase. In addition, market access promised through the TRQ system set up pursuant to China's WTO accession agreement still has yet to be fully realized." ("2017 National Trade Estimate Report On Foreign Trade Barriers," Office Of The United States Trade Representative , March 2017, pg. 91)

Despite The Clearance Of U.S. Products Under International Guidelines, China Has Blocked The Importation Of U.S. Beef And Poultry For "Questionable," "Unwarranted," And "Unscientific" Reasons. "In 2016, beef, poultry and pork products were affected by questionable SPS measures implemented by China's regulatory authorities. For example, China continued to block the importation of U.S. beef and beef products, more than nine years after these products had been declared safe to trade under international scientific guidelines established by the World Organization for Animal Health (known by its historical acronym OIE), and despite the further fact that in 2013 the United States received the lowest risk status from the OIE, i.e., negligible risk. China also continued to impose an unwarranted and unscientific Avian Influenza-related import suspension on U.S. poultry due to an outbreak of high-pathogenic Avian Influenza (AI), which has now been eliminated in the United States." ("2017 National Trade Estimate Report On Foreign Trade Barriers," Office Of The United States Trade Representative , March 2017, pg. 92)


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