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Trump’s Spine Of Steel For U.S. Workers

- March 8, 2018

Despite Faux Outrage Concerning President Trump's Moves To Protect U.S. Steel And Aluminum, Tariffs To Combat Unfair Trade Have Long Been A Bipartisan And Widely Supported Practice


TOP TAKEAWAYS

  • On March 1, 2018, after an extensive investigation by the U.S. Department of Commerce, President Trump announced tariffs on some steel and aluminum imports.
  • President Trump's announcement was greeted with histrionics by the media and Democrats.
  • However, both parties have supported combatting unfair trade practices for years.
    • President Barack Obama, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, and Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-NY) all supported policies to combat unfair trading practices.
    • President Obama said one area where there should be "no debate" was cracking down on trade cheating.
    • Former Secretary of State Clinton campaigned on promises to combat unfair trade practices and "rebuild American infrastructure with American materials like steel and aluminum."
  • Similar measures to protect U.S. steel and aluminum sectors have been pursued by Presidents Obama, Bush, and Clinton and were at the time lauded for protecting domestic industries and workers.
    • President Clinton issued tariffs on steel in 1993, 1999, and 2000, and his administration noted the "U.S. has a right to safeguard its industries and to impose relief to address serious injury."
    • In 2002, President Bush imposed tariffs of up to 30% on steel imported into the United States from Europe, Asia, and South America, a move many Democrats deemed as "doing too little, rather than too much."
    • President Obama imposed tariffs on Chinese tires, and steel imported from multiple countries including Brazil, China, and Russia.

IN MARCH 2018, PRESIDENT TRUMP FUFILLED HIS CAMPAIGN PROMISE TO BEGIN HOLDING FOREIGN COUNTRIES ACCOUNTABLE FOR THEIR UNFAIR TRADING PRACTICES

On The Campaign Trail, Donald Trump Promised To Hold Foreign Countries Accountable For Unfair Trade Practices And To "Stand Up To Trade Cheating Anywhere And Everywhere"

On The Campaign Trail, Republican Presidential Candidate Donald Trump Promised To Hold Foreign Countries Responsible For Abusing Trade Agreements. DONALD TRUMP: "I'm going to direct the Secretary of Commerce to identify every violation of trade agreements a foreign country is currently using to harm our workers. I will then direct all appropriate agencies to use every tool under American and international law to end these abuses." (Donald Trump, Remarks At Alumisource Metals Recycling Facility , Monessen, PA, 06/28/16)

Trump Promised To "Stand Up To Trade Cheating Anywhere And Everywhere..." TRUMP: "We will stand up to trade cheating anywhere and everywhere it threatens an American job." (Donald Trump, Remarks At Alumisource Metals Recycling Facility , Monessen, PA, 06/28/16)

Upon Entering Office, President Trump Instructed The Department Of Commerce To Investigate The National Security Implications Of Steel And Aluminum Imports

On April 20, 2017, President Trump Instructed Secretary Of Commerce Wilbur Ross To Investigate The Effect Of Steel Imports On U.S. National Security. "Today, President Donald J. Trump signed a presidential memorandum calling on Secretary Wilbur Ross to prioritize a Department of Commerce investigation initiated last night into the effects of steel imports on US national security. The study will consider overcapacity, dumping, illegal subsidies and other factors, to determine whether steel imports threaten American economic security and military preparedness. 'We are going to fight for American workers and American-made steel by conducting a thorough investigation into steel imports,' said President Trump." (Press Release, "Presidential Memorandum Prioritizes Commerce Steel Investigation," U.S. Department Of Commerce , 04/20/17)

On April 27, 2017, President Trump Instructed Secretary Ross To Likewise Investigate The Effect Of Aluminum Imports On U.S. National Security. "The Secretary of Commerce (Secretary) has initiated an investigation under section 232(b)(1)(A) of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (the "Act") (19 U.S.C. 1862(b)(1)(A)) to determine the effects on national security of aluminum imports." (Press Release, "Memorandum For The Secretary Of Commerce," U.S. Department Of Commerce , 04/27/17)

  • Under Section 232 Of The Trade Expansion Act, The Secretary Of Commerce Is Authorized To Conduct Investigations To Determine The Effects Of Imports On The National Security Of The United States. "Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 (19 U.S.C. §1862) authorizes the Secretary of Commerce to conduct comprehensive investigations to determine the effects of imports of any article on the national security of the United States." (Press Release, "Fact Sheet: Section 232 Investigations," U.S. Department Of Commerce , 04/20/17)

In January 2018, The Department Of Commerce Concluded That Imports Of Steel And Aluminum Impaired U.S. National Security And Weakened Our Internal Economy

The Department Of Commerce Found That Imports Of Aluminum Have Left The U.S. At Risk Of "Almost Totally Reliant On Foreign Producers." "Based on these findings, the Secretary of Commerce has concluded that the present quantities and circumstance of aluminum imports are 'weakening our internal economy' and threaten to impair the national security as defined in Section 232. The Department of Defense and critical domestic industries depend on large quantities of aluminum. But recent import trends have left the U.S. almost totally reliant on foreign producers of primary aluminum. ("The Effect Of Imports Of Aluminum On National Security," U.S. Department Of Commerce , pg. 5, 01/17/18)

  • The Commerce Department Also Noted That The U.S. Aluminum Industry "Is At Risk Of Becoming Unable To Satisfy Existing National Security Needs." "The U.S. is also at risk of becoming completely reliant on foreign producers of high-purity aluminum is at risk of becoming unable to satisfy existing national security needs or respond to a national security emergency that requires a large increase in domestic production that is essential for key military and commercial systems. The domestic aluminum industry." ("The Effect Of Imports Of Aluminum On National Security," U.S. Department Of Commerce , pg. 5, 01/17/18)

The Department Of Commerce Concluded Present Quantities Of Steel Imports Weakened Our Internal Economy And Threatened "To Impair The National Security" Of The U.S. "Based on these findings, the Secretary of Commerce concludes that the present quantities and circumstance of steel imports are 'weakening our internal economy' and threaten to impair the national security as defined in Section 232.'" ("The Effect Of Imports Of Steel On National Security," U.S. Department Of Commerce , 01/11/18, pg. 5)

Following The Commerce Department's Investigations, President Trump Announced The United States Would Be Instituting Tariffs Of 25% And 10% On Steel And Aluminum Imports Respectively

In Remarks Made On March 1, 2018, President Trump Announced He Would Be Instituting Tariffs On Aluminum And Steel Imports. PRESIDENT DONALD TRUMP: "So we're bringing it back, and we're going to bring it back relatively rapidly, and we're going to be instituting tariffs. Next week, we'll be signing - perhaps some of you folks will be here. When you have Nucor, when you have U.S. Steel, you have the great aluminum companies represented at this table. And they've been decimated. Aluminum has been decimated in the country." (President Trump, Remarks By President Trump In Listening Session With Representatives From The Steel And Aluminum Industry , Washington, DC, 03/01/18)

The President Announced He Would Be Instituting A 25% Tariff On Steel And A 10% Tariff On Aluminum Products. TRUMP: "Unlimited period. Unlimited." QUESTION: "Twenty-five on steel?" TRUMP: "Twenty-five percent for steel. It will be 10 percent for aluminum. And it will be for a long period of time." (President Trump, Remarks By President Trump In Listening Session With Representatives From The Steel And Aluminum Industry , Washington, DC, 03/01/18)

THE INSTITUTION OF TARIFFS TO COMBAT UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICES HAS BEEN A WIDELY SUPPORTED POLICY IN BOTH PARTIES

Following President Trump's Announcement, Media And Democratic Politicians Launched Into Hyperbole And Histrionics

The Washington Post Headline: "Trump Escalates Trade War, Threatens European Carmakers With Stiffs Tariffs." (Damian Paletta, "Trump Escalates Trade War, Threatens European Carmakers With Stiff Tariffs," The Washington Post , 03/03/18)

The Washington Post Editorial Board: "Trump's Tariffs Will Hurt All Americans." (Editorial Board, "Trump's Tariffs Will Hurt All Americans," The Washington Post , 03/01/18)

The Associated Press Headline: "AP FACT CHECK: Trump's 'Easy' Trade War Defies History." (Josh Boak and Calvin Woodward, "AP FACT CHECK: Trump's 'Easy' Trade War Defies History," The Associated Press , 03/02/18)

Sen. Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-NY) Said President Trump's Plan Would "Hurt America More Than It Helps." "'The president's instincts to go after China are correct, but the policy he proposes doesn't fit the bill. It's not well targeted. It's not precise. And as a result, it could cause a mess of collateral damage that hurts America more than it helps,' Schumer said on Wednesday.'" (Jordain Carney, "Schumer: Trump Must Back Down From 'Sweeping' Tariffs," The Hill , 03/07/18)

Sen. Mazie Hirono (D-HI) On President Trump's Tariff Announcement: The "Chaos Continues." SENATOR MAZIE HIRONO (D-HI): "Of course not, the word is chaos continues. As one of my republican colleagues said, every day is a new adventure with this President. His most recent announcement about the tariffs, the Wall Street immediately -- the stock market immediately responded. but the bottom line for this president is that whenever he's under attack, then he goes to his base and it is all about Trump every day, all the time. And he starts talking about America first, and his Nativism. He preys on the fears of people in the public." (CNN's "Newsroom," 03/02/18)

But Democrats For Years Have Claimed Combatting Unfair Trade Practices Was A Priority For Their Party

In 2016, President Obama Said One Area Where There "Should Be No Debate," Was Concerning Trade Rules And That "We Can't Have Other Countries Engaged In Practices That Disadvantage American Workers And American Business." PRESIDENT OBAMA: "Well, trade is a major topic of debate here in the United States and around the world. One area where there should be no debate is that once we've set up trade rules, people have to abide by them. We can't have other countries cheating. We can't have other countries engaged in practices that disadvantage American workers and American businesses." (President Obama, " Remarks By The President At The Signing Of The Trade Facilitation And Trade Enforcement Act Of 2015 ," Washington, D.C., 02/24/16)

President Obama Stated He Was Proud His Administration Had Ramped Up Enforcement Of Trade Laws To Protect American Steel. OBAMA: "One of the things I've very proud of is that we have ramped up enforcement of our trade laws to protect American workers and American businesses like never before. In areas like steel, for example, we've brought more cases than we had in the previous decade. We've brought more cases before the World Trade Organization, the WTO, than any other administration. The ones that we've brought, we have won. In fact, we just won a case against India this week." (President Obama, " Remarks By The President At The Signing Of The Trade Facilitation And Trade Enforcement Act Of 2015 ," Washington, D.C., 02/24/16)

In Her Election Campaign, Hillary Clinton Promised To "Crack Down On Trade Abuses," "Stand Up For American Workers," And "Rebuild American Infrastructure With American Materials Like Steel And Aluminum." "'I have put forward an agenda to crack down on trade abuses from countries like China, to stand up for American workers, and to rebuild American infrastructure with American materials like steel and aluminum.'" (Daniella Diaz and MJ Lee, "Clinton Slams Trump Over Report That Says He Bought Chinese Steel, CNN , 10/04/16)

Clinton Promised To Use "Every Tool We Possibly Can Use Against China For Their Illegal Action." "Steel is crucial to our manufacturing base, crucial to our national security and I will not let this vital industry disappear. I'm going to make the steel industry's survival one of my top priorities. Now, I've gone toe-to-toe with China's top leaders on some very tough issues. And as president, I will go to bat for all our trades, our steelworkers, our ironworkers, everyone. We're going to use every tool we possibly can against China for their illegal action." (Elizabeth Brotherton-Bunch, "Clinton Calls Steel Industry "Crucial" To Manufacturing Base, National Security," Alliance For American Manufacturing , 04/27/16)

In August 2017, Minority Leader Sen. Schumer (D-NY) Called For Swift Action To Protect Steel And Aluminum Chains In The United States. "U.S. Senate Minority Leader Charles E. Schumer today urged Secretary of Commerce Wilbur L. Ross, Jr. and United States Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer to resolve the ongoing investigations into the impact of steel and aluminum imports on national security formally known as 'Sec. 232 investigations.' Schumer said, robust steel and aluminum industries are vital to our defense industry and critical infrastructure; industries that are currently being undermined by artificially priced imports. Schumer said swift action is needed to protect, Nucor, Alcoa, Novelis, Welded Tube, Klein Steel and workers throughout the steel and aluminum value chains from the recent surge in imports." (Press Release, "Schumer On Surge In Cheap Aluminum And Steel Imports," Sen. Chuck Schumer , 08/15/17)

Sen. Schumer Even Encouraged President Trump To "Skip The Investigation And Go Straight To Action Against China," For Its Trade Practices. "Three senior Democratic senators, in a rare show of bipartisanship, urged U.S. President Donald Trump to stand up to China as he weighs launching an investigation of its intellectual property and trade practices. Senate Democratic leader Chuck Schumer encouraged the Republican president to skip the investigation and go straight to action against China. 'We should certainly go after them,' said Schumer in a statement." (Ginger Gibson, "In Rare Bipartisan Display, U.S. Democrats Back Trump On China Trade Probe," Reuters , 08/02/17)

Even The 2016 Democratic Party Platform Promised Democrats Would Use All Of Their "Trade Enforcement Tools To Hold China And Other Partners Accountable," For Their Unfair Trade Practices. "That has to stop. Democrats will use all our trade enforcement tools to hold China and other trading partners accountable-because no country should be able to manipulate their currencies to gain a competitive advantage." ("2016 DNC Platform," Democratic National Committee , Accessed 12/05/2017)

  • The Party Platform Specifically Attacked China For Using "Unfair Trade Practices To Tilt The Playing Field Against American Workers And Businesses." "China and other countries are using unfair trade practices to tilt the playing field against American workers and businesses. When they dump cheap products into our markets, subsidize state-owned enterprises, devalue currencies, and discriminate against American companies, our middle class pays the price." ("2016 DNC Platform," Democratic National Committee , Accessed 12/05/2017)

TARIFFS TO PROTECT AMERICAN INDUSTRIES WERE PURSUED UNDER PRESIDENTS OBAMA, BUSH, AND CLINTON AND ACCEPTED FOR THEIR NATIONAL SECURITY AND DOMESTIC INFRASTRUCTURE PURPOSES

Under President Bill Clinton, Tariffs Were Imposed On Steel Imports In 1993, 1999, And 2000 And Were Defended As Necessary To Protecting Domestic Industry By The Administration

In 1993, The Clinton Administration Imposed Punitive Tariffs On Steel Imports From 19 Countries, Including Japan And South Korea, After A Finding That They Were Being Sold At Unfairly Low Prices. "The United States imposed punitive tariffs Wednesday on steel imports from 19 countries after a preliminary finding that the products were being sold at unfairly low prices. The countries involved include seven members of the European Community, Canada, Japan and South Korea. The Commerce Department in a preliminary decision ruled in favor of U.S. steelmakers that complained foreign manufacturers were selling certain carbon steel products at below cost price on the U.S. market." ("U.S. Raises Duties On Steel Imports From 19 Countries," Agency France Presse, 01/27/93)

  • The Clinton Administration Justified The Duties Saying They Supported "The Rights Of The Domestic Industry To Obtain Relief From Unfair Trading Practices Under U.S. Law." "The move to impose the duties was decided by the administration of George Bush and approved by the new government of President Bill Clinton. Commerce Secretary Ron Brown said of the ruling, 'The administration fully supports the rights of the domestic industry to obtain relief from unfair trade practices under U.S. laws, and will make sure that these laws are enforced in a fair and effective manner.'" ("U.S. Raises Duties On Steel Imports From 19 Countries," Agency France Presse, 01/27/93)

In 1999, The Clinton Administration's Comprehensive Steel Agreement With Russia Reduced Imports Of Russian Steel By 64% And Established Minimum Pricing. ("The Effect Of Imports Of Steel On National Security," U.S. Department Of Commerce , pg. 6, 01/11/18)

In 2000, The Clinton Administration, Responding To Petitions From U.S. Industry, Instituted Global Tariffs Ranging From 10% to 19% On Wire Rod And Line Pipes. ("The Effect Of Imports Of Steel On National Security," U.S. Department Of Commerce , 01/11/18, Appendix J- Page 2,)

  • A Clinton Administration Official At The Time Said "The U.S. Has A Right To Safeguard Its Industries And To Impose Relief To Address Serious Injury." "'The U.S. has a right to safeguard its industries and to impose temporary relief to address serious injury,' the official said. The action places a 10 percent duty on wire rod and a 19 percent surcharge on line pipe, with the duties phased out over three years. The duties will hit only those imports that exceed the 1998 baseline." (Joseph Kahn, "Clinton Imposes Tariffs On Steel Imports That Exceed Quota," The New York Times , 02/12/00)
  • Administration Spokesman Joe Lockhart Said They "Had No Choice But To Act Under U.S. Trade Laws To Protect Domestic Industry." "The administration argued that Clinton had no choice but to act under U.S. trade laws to protect the domestic industry. Last September, 101 senators and representatives had written Clinton urging favorable decisions. 'The action that the president has announced represents a clear statement of the administration's commitment both to the vigorous enforcement of U.S. trade laws and to the application of international trade rules,' presidential spokesman Joe Lockhart said in a statement." (Martin Crutsinger, "Clinton Grants Steel Industry Relief From Foreign Imports," The Associated Press , 02/12/00)

In 2002, When President George W. Bush Imposed Tariffs Of 30% On Steel, The Democratic Party Criticized Him For "Doing Too Little, Rather Than Too Much"

In 2002, President George W. Bush Imposed Tariffs Of Up To 30% On Most Types of Steel Imported Into The United States From Europe, Asia And South America. "President Bush took some of the broadest federal action in two decades to protect a major American industry today, imposing tariffs of up to 30 percent on most types of steel imported into the United States from Europe, Asia and South America." (David Sanger, "Bush Puts Tariffs Of As Much As 30% On Steel Imports," The New York Times , 03/06/02)

At The Time, Democratic Majority Leader Richard Gephardt (D- MO) Blamed The Bush Administration For "Doing Too Little, Rather Than Too Much." "Democrats today blamed Mr. Bush for doing too little, rather than too much. 'Last week the steel companies and the steel worker unions agreed that 40 percent was the minimum average tariff needed to stabilize the industry,' Richard A. Gephardt, the Democratic leader, said in a statement today." (David Sanger, "Bush Puts Tariffs Of As Much As 30% On Steel Imports," The New York Times , 03/06/02)

  • In Particular, Rep. Gephardt Said He Was "Disappointed" The Tariffs Averaged Less Than 30%. "He said he was ''disappointed'' that the tariffs average less than 30 percent." (David Sanger, "Bush Puts Tariffs Of As Much As 30% On Steel Imports," The New York Times , 03/06/02)

When President Bush Lifted The Tariffs On Steel After 21 Months, "Democratic Presidential Candidates Denounced The Decision As A Betrayal…" "Elected officials from steel-producing regions and several of the Democratic presidential candidates denounced the decision as a betrayal of a promise by the president to the industry's employees. They said that while there were hopeful signs for the industry, much more needed to be done to assure its survival and that leaving the tariffs in place for the full three years would have provided necessary breathing room to make further progress." (Richard Stevenson, "After 21 Months, Bush Lifts Tariff On Steel Imports," The New York Times , 12/05/03)

  • Majority Leader Rep. Gephardt (D-MO) Called The Decision A "Callous Disregard," For Workers Whose Jobs Had Been "Decimated By Unfair Competition." "'The president's action today demonstrates a callous disregard for the workers and the communities whose jobs and livelihoods have been decimated by unfair competition,' Representative Richard A. Gephardt, the Missouri Democrat who is running for his party's presidential nomination, said in a statement. 'America needs a president who will not back down to foreign pressure when American jobs are on the line and when an industry vital to our nation's economy and security hangs in the balance.'" (Richard Stevenson, "After 21 Months, Bush Lifts Tariff On Steel Imports," The New York Times , 12/05/03)

Then-Rep. Sherrod Brown (D-OH) Encouraged The Bush Administration To Let The Tariffs Run Their Three Year Course. "Some members of Congress quickly urged Mr. Bush to ignore the W.T.O. ruling. Rep. Sherrod Brown, a Democrat of Ohio, referred to the W.T.O. as a 'secret' court and said the president should let the tariffs run their three-year course, now only half complete." (Elizabeth Becker, "U.S. Tariffs On Steel Are Illegal, World Trade Organization Says," The New York Times , 11/11/03)

Under President Obama, Tariffs Imposed On Chinese Tires, And Duties Imposed On Steel Imported From China And Brazil Were Called By Democrats "Necessary" To Protecting Domestic Infrastructure

In 2009, The Obama Administration Imposed Tariffs Of 35% On Chinese Tires. "The White House late Friday announced it would impose high tariffs on imports of Chinese tires in a case seen as the first test of trade policy under President Barack Obama. A 35 percent duty will be set on the tires from China for a year, followed by a 30 percent tariff for a second year and a 25 percent tariff for a third year. The tariffs come in addition to a 4 percent tariff already applied." (Ian Swanson, "Obama Hits China Steep Tire Tariffs," The Hill , 09/12/09)

  • The Administration Was Petitioned To Impose The Tariffs By Steelworkers Who Were Suffering From Cheap Chinese Imports. "The petition for the tariffs was brought by the United Steelworkers union, which argued that increased imports from China had led to the closure of U.S. plants and elimination of U.S. jobs. Labor groups had urged Obama to impose the relief, which represents the first time a 'safeguard' mechanism approved by Congress in 2000 has been used. The safeguard was included in a law that provided China with more favorable trade terms when it joined the World Trade Organization." (Ian Swanson, "Obama Hits China Steep Tire Tariffs," The Hill , 09/12/09)
  • The Obama Administration Trade Advisor Stated That The Administration Was Doing What Was "Necessary To Enforce Trade Agreements On Behalf Of American Workers And Manufacturers." "U.S. Trade Representative Ron Kirk said that by imposing the relief, the administration was enforcing U.S. trade laws. 'When China came in to the WTO, the U.S. negotiated the ability to impose remedies in situations like this one,' he said in a statement 'This administration is doing what is necessary to enforce trade agreements on behalf of American workers and manufacturers.'" (Ian Swanson, "Obama Hits China With Steep Tire Tariffs," The Hill , 09/12/09)
  • House Democrats Hailed The Move, And The Chairman Of The House Ways And Means Committee Rep. Charles Rangel (D-NY) Said That Without This Corrective Action, The American Tire Industry Stood To "Lose Thousands More [Jobs]." "Several House Democrats who in the past had urged Bush to grant relief to groups that had sought measures to restrict imports from China hailed the move. 'The American tire industry lost more than 5,000 jobs since China flooded our market with cheap tires and stood to lose thousands more without this corrective action,' said Rep. Charles Rangel (D-N.Y.), chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee." (Ian Swanson, "Obama Hits China With Steep Tire Tariffs," The Hill , 09/12/09)
  • In His 2012 State Of The Union Address, President Obama Said That Over "A Thousand Americans Are Working Today," Because Of His Tariffs On Chinese Tires. OBAMA: "And I will not stand by when our competitors don't play by the rules. We've brought trade cases against China at nearly twice the rate as the last administration -- and it's made a difference. Over a thousand Americans are working today because we stopped a surge in Chinese tires. But we need to do more." (Barack Obama, Remarks By The President In State Of The Union Address , Washington, D.C., 01/24/12)

In 2009, The Obama Administration Imposed $2.8 Billion In Duties On Steel Imports From China In A Move To Protect Steelmakers. "The United States will impose duties on US$2.8-billion in steel-pipe imports from China after saying subsidies on the products may harm U.S. steelmakers, a move that threatens to escalate trade tensions between the two countries." (Daniel Whitten, "U.S. Hits China With Tariff On Steel Pipes; Tension Escalates," Bloomberg, 12/31/09)

  • The U.S. International Trade Commission Paved The Way For The Decision Through A Determination That Chinese Pipe Imports Adversely Impacted U.S. Industry. "The US International Trade Commission (ITC) issued a 'final' decision saying that the pipes adversely impacted the US steel industry, paving the way for the Commerce Department to impose countervailing duties of up to nearly 16 percent." This is the largest countervailing duty case filed against China, based on the value of trade, lawyers said." (P. Parameswaran, "US To Impose Duties On Imported Chinese Steel Pipes,' The Age , 12/31/09)
  • The ITC Determined That The US Steel Industry Was "'Materially Injured Or Threatened With Material Injury' By The Imports Of Chinese Steel Pipes. " "The ITC, an independent federal agency, said in a statement that it had determined that the US steel industry was "materially injured or threatened with material injury" by the imports of the Chinese steel pipes. The pipes, known as 'oil country tubular goods' in trade jargon, are used to deliver oil and gas in the petroleum industry." (P. Parameswaran, "US To Impose Duties On Imported Chinese Steel Pipes,' The Age , 12/31/09)

In March 2016, The Obama Administration Placed Anti-Dumping And Countervailing Duties On Cold-Rolled Flat Steel On Seven Countries Including Brazil, China, And Russia. "Commerce Preliminarily Finds Dumping of Imports of Certain Cold Rolled Steel Flat Products from Brazil, China, India, Japan, Korea, Russia, and the United Kingdom." ("Commerce Preliminarily Finds Dumping Of Imports Of Certain Cold Rolled Steel Flat Products From Brazil, China, India, Japan, Korea, Russia, And The United Kingdom," Department Of Commerce , pg. 1, 03/01/16)

  • The Preliminary Order From The Obama Commerce Department Placed Duties Of Almost 266% On Cold-Rolled Steel From China. ("Commerce Preliminarily Finds Dumping Of Imports Of Certain Cold Rolled Steel Flat Products From Brazil, China, India, Japan, Korea, Russia, And The United Kingdom," Department Of Commerce , pg. 6, 03/01/16)

In The Weeks Before The Preliminary Order, Obama Promised To "Put In Place Tools" To Stop Chinese Dumping Of Subsidized Goods Into The U.S. Noting "I Don't Think It's Any Secret That China Has Not Always Operated Fairly." PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA: "I don't think it's any secret that China in the past has not always operated fairly. They are now in a process were they are trying to transition their economic model. They realize that they can't forever sustain an export-driven growth model, but it's going to take some time, and it's temping for them to solve short-term problems by just dumping a bunch of state-subsidized goods into the U.S. market. And we've been very clear with them about, that's not going to work, we're going to put in place tools to make sure it doesn't work." (President Barack Obama, Remarks On China's Steel Dumping , Washington D.C., 02/22/16)


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